Paradoxical Sleep - A Study of its Nature and Mechanisms
Michel Jouvet
Progress In Brain Research Vol. 18 Sleep Mechanisms 1965
Evidence of the duality of the states of sleep

(a) EEG and behavioural findings

(b) Phylogenetic findings

(c) Ontogenetic findings

(d) Functional findings

(e) Structural findings

Mechanisms of paradoxical sleep

(a) Producing P.S. as a reflex

(b) Results of deafferentations

(c) Role of the hypothalamus and pituitary

(d) Deprivation of P.S. in the pontile animal

(e) Effects of temperature on P.S. in the pontile animal

(f) Action of gamma-butyrolactone (G.B.L.)

(g) Osmolarity of the blood and paradoxical sleep


(a) Duality of the states of sleep

(b) Mechanisms underlying the appearance of P.S.

Summary and Conclusions



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Figure 10 : Differential effects of lesions of the lower brain stem on the two states of sleep

Lesions projected onto a sagittal section of the brain stem. Diagonal hatching: coagulation of the median three-quarters of the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis and interpeduncular nucleus. Persistence of P.S. (15%). lncrease in slow activity to 90% during first week. Return to normal proportion of slow sleep (60%) after third week (mean of 3 cats). Black area: lesion causing complete suppression of P.S. for 15-97 days. Mean proportion of slow sleep in 4 animals: 40%. Dotted area: Lesion in the caudal part of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis and the anterior part of the nucleus giganto-cellularis (involving the median two-thirds of these nuclei). Suppression of P.S. for 3 days followed by reappearance with normal rhythm (18%). Mean proportion of slow sleep in 2 cats: 40%. The proportion of slow sleep was determined in all animals in an average of 6 h of recording daily.

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