Paradoxical Sleep - A Study of its Nature and Mechanisms
Michel Jouvet
Progress In Brain Research Vol. 18 Sleep Mechanisms 1965
Evidence of the duality of the states of sleep

(a) EEG and behavioural findings

(b) Phylogenetic findings

(c) Ontogenetic findings

(d) Functional findings

(e) Structural findings

Mechanisms of paradoxical sleep

(a) Producing P.S. as a reflex

(b) Results of deafferentations

(c) Role of the hypothalamus and pituitary

(d) Deprivation of P.S. in the pontile animal

(e) Effects of temperature on P.S. in the pontile animal

(f) Action of gamma-butyrolactone (G.B.L.)

(g) Osmolarity of the blood and paradoxical sleep


(a) Duality of the states of sleep

(b) Mechanisms underlying the appearance of P.S.

Summary and Conclusions



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Figure 6 : Periodicity of P.S. in the chick

Chick aged 36 h. Diagrammatic representation of recording lasting 83 min. The black rectangles represent periods of P.S., which never lasted for more than 15 sec and were accompanied by a considerable reduction in nuchal EMG activity and by eye movements (+). The proportion of P.S. is 0.3%. Sleeping: 82.4%; awake 17.3%. Time scale: 1 min. Below: Changes in pulse rate (bradycardia) during the same period. The crosses represent P.S.

Time scale (abscissa): 1 min. Ordinate scale: pulse rate per min.

From Klein, 1963.

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