Paradoxical Sleep - A Study of its Nature and Mechanisms
Michel Jouvet
Progress In Brain Research Vol. 18 Sleep Mechanisms 1965
Evidence of the duality of the states of sleep

(a) EEG and behavioural findings

(b) Phylogenetic findings

(c) Ontogenetic findings

(d) Functional findings

(e) Structural findings

Mechanisms of paradoxical sleep

(a) Producing P.S. as a reflex

(b) Results of deafferentations

(c) Role of the hypothalamus and pituitary

(d) Deprivation of P.S. in the pontile animal

(e) Effects of temperature on P.S. in the pontile animal

(f) Action of gamma-butyrolactone (G.B.L.)

(g) Osmolarity of the blood and paradoxical sleep


(a) Duality of the states of sleep

(b) Mechanisms underlying the appearance of P.S.

Summary and Conclusions



Printable version

Figure 25 : Duality of the two states of sleep

Ordinates, for each diagram: percentage of P.S. (in black) with respect to behavioural sleep.(A)Phylogenetic aspect: hatched: newborn; in black: adult animal. (1) Tortoise: no P.S.; (2) Hen (0.2%); (3) Lamb (17%); sheep (6.6%); (4) Young rat (55%); rat (15%); (5) Kitten (80%); cat (30%); (6) Infant (50%); man (20%). From Klein, 1963. (B) Ontogenetic aspect (in kittens). Abscissa: Age in days. From Valatx, 1963. (C) After selective deprivation of P.S. during recuperative sleep. Abscissa: Duration of deprivation in days. (D) After destruction of the pontine reticular formation (posterior part of the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis and anterior part of N.R.P. caudalis. No P.S. (E) Chronic pontile animal. No slow sleep.