Paradoxical Sleep - A Study of its Nature and Mechanisms
Michel Jouvet
Progress In Brain Research Vol. 18 Sleep Mechanisms 1965
Evidence of the duality of the states of sleep

(a) EEG and behavioural findings

(b) Phylogenetic findings

(c) Ontogenetic findings

(d) Functional findings

(e) Structural findings

Mechanisms of paradoxical sleep

(a) Producing P.S. as a reflex

(b) Results of deafferentations

(c) Role of the hypothalamus and pituitary

(d) Deprivation of P.S. in the pontile animal

(e) Effects of temperature on P.S. in the pontile animal

(f) Action of gamma-butyrolactone (G.B.L.)

(g) Osmolarity of the blood and paradoxical sleep


(a) Duality of the states of sleep

(b) Mechanisms underlying the appearance of P.S.

Summary and Conclusions



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Figure 1 : Polygraphic aspects of the two states of sleep

(A) Wakefulness: Fast cortical and subcortical activity.

(B) Slow sleep: Cortical and subcortical spindles and slow waves. Persistence of nuchal EMG activity (EMG). No eye movements (EYES).

(C) P.S.: Fast cortical activity similar to (A). Regular alpha-activity in the ventral hippocampus (HIPP). Phasic activity in the pontine reticular formation (PRF). Complete disappearance of nuchal EMG activity and rapid eye movements. Changes in respiratory activity (RESP) and the plethysmographic index (PLETH).

SMC = sensorimotor cortex; ESC = ectosylvian cortex. MRF = midbrain reticular formation.

Scale: 1 sec; 50 microV

From Jouvet,1962a.

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