Le sommeil paradoxal : Est-il le gardien de l'individuation psychologique ?
Michel Jouvet
Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 1991, 45(2), 148-168

1 - Résumé - Abstract

2 - Introduction

3 - Les modalités théoriques...

4 - Modalités synchroniques...

5 - Modalités diachroniques...

6 - Conclusion: Evolution et sommeil paradoxal

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Evolution et sommeil paradoxal

Les mécanismes du sommeil paradoxal sont-ils adaptés à la conservation de l'individuation du système nerveux central ?

Un des concepts essentiels de l'évolution est la reconnaissance formelle de la variabilité intraspécifique (l'individu), en opposition avec le concept typologique de l'espèce. Cette variabilité s'explique fort bien par des mécanismes génétiques pour les caractères somatiques. Pourquoi ne pas la prendre alors en considération au niveau des processus psychologiques comme l'a bien remarqué Mayr (1958):

"Genetic variability is universal, a fact which is significant not only for the student of morphology but also for the student of behavior. It is not only wrong to speak of the monkey but even of the rhesus monkey.... The time has come to stress the existence of genetic differences in behavior.... Striking individual differences have been described for predator-prey relations, for the reactions of birds to mimicking or to warning colorations, for child care among primates, and for maternal behavior in rats. It is generally agreed by observers that much of this individual differences is not affected by experience but remains essentially constant throughout the entire lifetime of the individual. Such variability is of the greatest interest to the student of evolution, and it is to be hoped that it will receive more attention from the experimental psychologist than it has in the past..."

La théorie que nous avons résumée dans cet article est la réponse d'un neurophysiologiste au souhait exprimé par Mayr au moment ou fut découvert le sommeil paradoxal, cette énigme du fonctionnement du cerveau.

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