Paradoxical Sleep - A Study of its Nature and Mechanisms
Michel Jouvet
Progress In Brain Research Vol. 18 Sleep Mechanisms 1965
Evidence of the duality of the states of sleep

(a) EEG and behavioural findings

(b) Phylogenetic findings

(c) Ontogenetic findings

(d) Functional findings

(e) Structural findings

Mechanisms of paradoxical sleep

(a) Producing P.S. as a reflex

(b) Results of deafferentations

(c) Role of the hypothalamus and pituitary

(d) Deprivation of P.S. in the pontile animal

(e) Effects of temperature on P.S. in the pontile animal

(f) Action of gamma-butyrolactone (G.B.L.)

(g) Osmolarity of the blood and paradoxical sleep


(a) Duality of the states of sleep

(b) Mechanisms underlying the appearance of P.S.

Summary and Conclusions



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Figure 8 : Diagram of the postnatal development of the states of sleep in the kitten

(Based on three-hour recordings daily.) Stippled: Wakefulness. Vertical hatching: Slow sleep with nuchal EMG activity. Crossed area: Slow sleep without tonic muscular activity. Diagonal hatching: P.S. The limit between the vertical white columns and the continuous marking represents the age at which cortical activity takes on the appearance seen in adulthood.

Abscissa: Relative proportion (%) of each state. Ordinate: Age in days.

From Valatx et al., 1964.

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