Paradoxical Sleep - A Study of its Nature and Mechanisms
Michel Jouvet
Progress In Brain Research Vol. 18 Sleep Mechanisms 1965
Evidence of the duality of the states of sleep

(a) EEG and behavioural findings

(b) Phylogenetic findings

(c) Ontogenetic findings

(d) Functional findings

(e) Structural findings

Mechanisms of paradoxical sleep

(a) Producing P.S. as a reflex

(b) Results of deafferentations

(c) Role of the hypothalamus and pituitary

(d) Deprivation of P.S. in the pontile animal

(e) Effects of temperature on P.S. in the pontile animal

(f) Action of gamma-butyrolactone (G.B.L.)

(g) Osmolarity of the blood and paradoxical sleep


(a) Duality of the states of sleep

(b) Mechanisms underlying the appearance of P.S.

Summary and Conclusions



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Figure 24 : Relationship between pontine electrical activity during P.S. and the osmolarity of the blood

Chronic pontile animal with hypothalamic island. (1) P.S. during dehydration. Monophasic spikes grouped in pseudospindles, accompanied by lateral eye movements (EM). The pontine electrode is situated in the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis. (2) P.S. after rehydration (60 ml liquid). Very regular theta rhythm of 4.5 c/s associated with spikes and eye movements. This activity was observed only during the first two phases of P.S. after rehydration. It was never observed in the waking state. Identical pontine activity has been observed in 4 animals under the same conditions.

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