Paradoxical Sleep - A Study of its Nature and Mechanisms
Michel Jouvet
Progress In Brain Research Vol. 18 Sleep Mechanisms 1965
Evidence of the duality of the states of sleep

(a) EEG and behavioural findings

(b) Phylogenetic findings

(c) Ontogenetic findings

(d) Functional findings

(e) Structural findings

Mechanisms of paradoxical sleep

(a) Producing P.S. as a reflex

(b) Results of deafferentations

(c) Role of the hypothalamus and pituitary

(d) Deprivation of P.S. in the pontile animal

(e) Effects of temperature on P.S. in the pontile animal

(f) Action of gamma-butyrolactone (G.B.L.)

(g) Osmolarity of the blood and paradoxical sleep


(a) Duality of the states of sleep

(b) Mechanisms underlying the appearance of P.S.

Summary and Conclusions



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Figure 23 : Relationship between P.S. and osmolarity of the blood

Pontile animal with hypothalamic island. Ordinate: Proportion of P.S. during recording period (calculated per period of 100 min). Abscissa: Time in minutes and hours. The normal proportion of P.S. (control determined over 10 days) is 8% (+ 2%). Continuous line: After intravenous injection (arrow) of 20 ml of 20% hypertonic saline, high levels of P.S. for 5 h. Broken line: After forcing of a quantity of water 10% of the body weight, following injection of 2 units ADH. complete disappearance of P.S. for 5 h followed by slow return to normal. Blood Na and K levels were determined at A, B, C and D (in mequiv/l): before and after injection of saline: Na: 142-152-168-157; K: 6.4 5.2-6.3 6.2. a b c-d : after forcing of water: Na: 157-146-138-136-138; K: 6.2-6.6-6.2-5.6 7.2. In this animal injection of ADH had no effect on the proportion of P.S.

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